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Challenges of the Human Proteome Project: 10-year experience of the Russian Consortium

Alexander I. Archakov, Alexander L. Aseev, Konstantin G. Skryabin [et al.]

This manuscript collects all the efforts of the Russian Consortium, bottlenecks revealed in the course of the C-HPP realization, and ways of their overcoming. One of the main bottlenecks in the C-HPP is the insufficient sensitivity of proteomic technologies, hampering the detection of low- and ultralow-copy number proteins forming the "dark part" of the human proteome. In the frame of MP-Challenge, to increase proteome coverage we suggest an experimental workflow based on a combination of shotgun technology and selected reaction monitoring with two-dimensional alkaline fractionation. Further, to detect proteins that cannot be identified by such technologies, nanotechnologies such as combined atomic force microscopy with molecular fishing and/or nanowire detection may be useful. These technologies provide a powerful tool for single molecule analysis, by analogy with nanopore sequencing during genome analysis. To systematically analyze the functional features of some proteins (CP50 Challenge), we created a mathematical model that predicts the number of proteins differing in amino acid sequence: proteoforms. According to our data, we should expect about 100 000 different proteoforms in the liver tissue and a little more in the HepG2 cell line. The variety of proteins forming the whole human proteome significantly exceeds these results due to post-translational modifications (PTMs). As PTMs determine the functional specificity of the protein, we propose using a combination of gene-centric transcriptome-proteomic analysis with preliminary fractionation by two-dimensional electrophoresis to identify chemically modified proteoforms. Despite the complexity of the proposed solutions, such integrative approaches could be fruitful for MP50 and CP50 Challenges in the framework of the C-HPP.

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Journal of Proteome Research. – 2019. – Vol. 18, № 12. – P. 4206–4214.

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